Friday, July 18, 2008

Process Area (CMMi and KPA's)

Before Proceeding further, we need to understand CMMi terminology first please have a glance at the following table –




Amplifications are informative model components that contain information relevant to a particular discipline. For example, to find amplification for software engineering, one would look in the model for items labeled “For Software Engineering.” The same is true for other disciplines.


Achievement of process improvement within an individual process area. A capability level is defined by the appropriate specific and generic practices for a process area.


A model generated from the CMMI Framework.


A capability maturity model structure wherein capability levels provide a recommended order for approaching process improvement within each specified process area.


A required model component that describes characteristics that must be present to institutionalize processes that implement a process area.


An expected model component that is considered important in achieving the associated generic goal. The generic practices associated with a generic goal describe the activities that are expected to result in achievement of the generic goal and contribute to the institutionalization of the processes associated with a process area.


An informative model component that appears after a generic practice to provide guidance on how the generic practice should be applied to the process area.


A required CMMI component that can be either a generic goal or a specific goal. The word goal in a CMMI model always refers to a model component (e.g., generic goal and specific goal).


Degree of process improvement across a predefined set of process areas in which all goals in the set are attained.


A cluster of related practices in an area that, when implemented collectively, satisfies a set of goals considered important for making improvement in that area. All CMMI process areas are common to both continuous and staged representations.


An informative model component that points to additional or more detailed information in related process areas.


A required model component that describes the unique characteristics that must be present to satisfy the process area.


An expected model component that is considered important in achieving the associated specific goal. The specific practices describe the activities expected to result in achievement of the specific goals of a process area.


A model structure wherein attaining the goals of a set of process areas establishes a maturity level; each level builds a foundation for subsequent levels.


An informative model component that provides guidance for interpreting and implementing specific or generic practices. Subpractices may be worded as if prescriptive, but they are actually meant only to provide ideas that may be useful for process improvement.


In the CMMI Product Suite, a useful result of a process. This can include files, documents, products, parts of a product, services, process descriptions, specifications, and invoices. A key distinction between a work product and a product component is that a work product is not necessarily part of the end product.

All CMMI models contain multiple process areas (PAs). A PA has 1 to 4 goals, and each goal is comprised of practices. These goals and practices are called specific goals and practices, as they describe activities that are specific to a single process area. An additional set of goals and practices applies across all of the process areas; this set is called generic goals and practices.

The latest version of Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMi) is Version 1.2 which contains 22 process areas(as Listed Below) that describe the aspects of product development that are to be covered by organizational processes.

  • Causal Analysis and Resolution
  • Configuration Management
  • Decision Analysis and Resolution
  • Integrated Project Management
  • Measurement and Analysis
  • Organizational Innovation and Deployment
  • Organizational Process Definition
  • Organizational Process Focus
  • Organizational Process Performance
  • Organizational Training
  • Project Monitoring and Control
  • Project Planning
  • Process and Product Quality Assurance
  • Product Integration
  • Quantitative Project Management
  • Requirements Management
  • Requirements Development
  • Risk Management
  • Supplier Agreement Management
  • Technical Solution
  • Validation
  • Verification

Process Area Categories

There are four process area categories used in CMMI for Development: Project Management, Process Management, Engineering, and Support.

Process Management

  • OID - Organizational Innovation and Deployment
  • OPD - Organizational Process Definition +IPPD
  • OPF - Organizational Process Focus
  • OPP - Organizational Process Performance
  • OT - Organizational Training

Project Management

  • PP - Project Planning
  • PMC - Project Monitoring and Control
  • SAM - Supplier Agreement Management
  • IPM - Integrated Project Management +IPPD
  • RSKM - Risk Management
  • QPM - Quantitative Project Management


  • REQM - Requirements Management
  • RD - Requirements Development
  • TS - Technical Solution
  • PI - Product Integration
  • VER - Verification
  • VAL – Validation


  • CM - Configuration Management
  • PPQA - Process and Product Quality Assurance
  • MA - Measurement and Analysis
  • DAR - Decision Analysis and Resolution
  • CAR - Causal Analysis and Resolution

Maturity Levels

There are five maturity levels. However, maturity level ratings are awarded for levels 2 through 5.

Maturity Level 1 - Ad hoc (Chaotic)

It is characteristic of processes at this level that they are (typically) undocumented and in a state of dynamic change, tending to be driven in an ad hoc, uncontrolled and reactive manner by users or events. This provides a chaotic or unstable environment for the processes.

This Level does not have any KPA linked with it.

Maturity Level 2 – Repeatable

It is characteristic of processes at this level that some processes are repeatable, possibly with consistent results. The processes may not repeat for all the projects in the organization. The organization may use some basic project management to track cost and schedule.

Process discipline is unlikely to be rigorous, but where it exists it may help to ensure that existing practices are retained during times of stress. When these practices are in place, projects are performed and managed according to their documented plans.

Following are the KPA’s linked to this level

  • CM - Configuration Management
  • MA - Measurement and Analysis
  • PMC - Project Monitoring and Control
  • PP - Project Planning
  • PPQA - Process and Product Quality Assurance
  • REQM - Requirements Management
  • SAM - Supplier Agreement Management

Maturity Level 3 – Defined

It is characteristic of processes at this level that there are sets of defined and documented standard processes established and subject to some degree of improvement over time. These standard processes are in place (i.e., they are the AS-IS processes) and used to establish consistency of process performance across the organization. Projects establish their defined processes by applying the organization’s set of standard processes, tailored, if necessary, within similarly standardized guidelines.

Following are the KPA’s linked to this level

  • DAR - Decision Analysis and Resolution
  • IPM - Integrated Project Management +IPPD
  • OPD - Organizational Process Definition +IPPD
  • OPF - Organizational Process Focus
  • OT - Organizational Training
  • PI - Product Integration
  • RD - Requirements Development
  • RSKM - Risk Management
  • TS - Technical Solution
  • VAL - Validation
  • VER – Verification

Maturity Level 4 – Managed

It is characteristic of processes at this level that, using process metrics, management can effectively control the AS-IS process (e.g., for software development ). In particular, management can identify ways to adjust and adapt the process to particular projects without measurable losses of quality or deviations from specifications. Process Capability is established from this level.

Following are the KPA’s linked to this level

  • QPM - Quantitative Project Management
  • OPP - Organizational Process Performance

Maturity Level 5 – Optimized

It is characteristic of processes at this level that the focus is on continually improving process performance through both incremental and innovative technological changes/improvements.

Following are the KPA’s linked to this level

  • CAR - Causal Analysis and Resolution
  • OID - Organizational Innovation and Deployment

Goals and Practices

There are two categories of goals and practices: generic and specific. Specific goals and practices are specific to a process area. Generic goals and practices are a part of every process area. A process area is satisfied when organizational processes cover all of the generic and specific goals and practices for that process area.

Specific Goals and Practices

Each process area is defined by a set of goals and practices. These goals and practices appear only in that process area.

Generic Goals and Practices

Generic goals and practices are a part of every process area.

  • GG 1 Achieve Specific Goals
    • GP 1.1 Perform Specific Practices

  • GG 2 Institutionalize a Managed Process
    • GP 2.1 Establish an Organizational Policy
    • GP 2.2 Plan the Process
    • GP 2.3 Provide Resources
    • GP 2.4 Assign Responsibility
    • GP 2.5 Train People
    • GP 2.6 Manage Configurations
    • GP 2.7 Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders
    • GP 2.8 Monitor and Control the Process
    • GP 2.9 Objectively Evaluate Adherence
    • GP 2.10 Review Status with Higher Level Management

  • GG 3 Institutionalize a Defined Process
    • GP 3.1 Establish a Defined Process
    • GP 3.2 Collect Improvement Information

  • GG 4 Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process
    • GP 4.1 Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process
    • GP 4.2 Stabilise Subprocess Performance

  • GG 5 Institutionalize an Optimizing Process
    • GP 5.1 Ensure Continuous Process Improvement
    • GP 5.2 Correct Root Causes of Problems

Process Areas

CMMI for Development, Version 1.2 contains 22 process areas indicating the aspects of product and service development that are to be covered by organizational processes.

Process Area

Supported at Maturity level


Specific Practice by Goals

Causal Analysis and Resolution (CAR)


The purpose of Causal Analysis and Resolution (CAR) is to identify causes of defects and other problems and take action to prevent them from occurring in the future.

· SG 1 Determine Causes of Defects

o SP 1.1 Select Defect Data for Analysis

o SP 1.2 Analyze Causes

· SG 2 Address Causes of Defects

o SP 2.1 Implement the Action Proposals

o SP 2.2 Evaluate the Effect of Changes

o SP 2.3 Record Data

Configuration Management (CM)


The purpose of Configuration Management (CM) is to establish and maintain the integrity of work products using configuration identification, configuration control, configuration status accounting, and configuration audits.

· SG 1 Establish Baselines

o SP 1.1 Identify Configuration Items

o SP 1.2 Establish a Configuration Management System

o SP 1.3 Create or Release Baselines

· SG 2 Track and Control Changes

o SP 2.1 Track Change Requests

o SP 2.2 Control Configuration Items

· SG 3 Establish Integrity

o SP 3.1 Establish Configuration Management Records

o SP 3.2 Perform Configuration Audits

Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR)


The purpose of Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR) is to analyze possible decisions using a formal evaluation process that evaluates identified alternatives against established criteria.

· SG 1 Evaluate Alternatives

o SP 1.1 Establish Guidelines for Decision Analysis

o SP 1.2 Establish Evaluation Criteria

o SP 1.3 Identify Alternative Solutions

o SP 1.4 Select Evaluation Methods

o SP 1.5 Evaluate Alternatives

o SP 1.6 Select Solutions

Integrated Project Management +IPPD (IPM)


The purpose of Integrated Project Management +IPPD (IPM) is to establish and manage the project and the involvement of the relevant stakeholders according to an integrated and defined process that is tailored from the organization's set of standard processes.

· SG 1 Use the Project's Defined Process

o SP 1.1 Establish the Project's Defined Process

o SP 1.2 Use Organizational Process Assets for Planning Project Activities

o SP 1.3 Establish the Project's Work Environment

o SP 1.4 Integrate Plans

o SP 1.5 Manage the Project Using the Integrated Plans

o SP 1.6 Contribute to the Organizational Process Assets

· SG 2 Coordinate and Collaborate with Relevant Stakeholders

o SP 2.1 Manage Stakeholder Involvement

o SP 2.2 Manage Dependencies

o SP 2.3 Resolve Coordination Issues

IPPD Addition:

· SG 3 Apply IPPD Principles

o SP 3.1 Establish the Project’s Shared Vision

o SP 3.2 Establish the Integrated Team Structure

o SP 3.3 Allocate Requirements to Integrated Teams

o SP 3.4 Establish Integrated Teams

o SP 3.5 Ensure Collaboration among Interfacing Teams

Measurement and Analysis (MA)


The purpose of Measurement and Analysis (MA) is to develop and sustain a measurement capability that is used to support management information needs.

· SG 1 Align Measurement and Analysis Activities

o SP 1.1 Establish Measurement Objectives

o SP 1.2 Specify Measures

o SP 1.3 Specify Data Collection and Storage Procedures

o SP 1.4 Specify Analysis Procedures

· SG 2 Provide Measurement Results

o SP 2.1 Collect Measurement Data

o SP 2.2 Analyze Measurement Data

o SP 2.3 Store Data and Results

o SP 2.4 Communicate Results

Organizational Innovation and Deployment (OID)


The purpose of Organizational Innovation and Deployment (OID) is to select and deploy incremental and innovative improvements that measurably improve the organization's processes and technologies. The improvements support the organization's quality and process-performance objectives as derived from the organization's business objectives.

· SG 1 Select Improvements

o SP 1.1 Collect and Analyze Improvement Proposals

o SP 1.2 Identify and Analyze Innovations

o SP 1.3 Pilot Improvements

o SP 1.4 Select Improvements for Deployment

· SG 2 Deploy Improvements

o SP 2.1 Plan the Deployment

o SP 2.2 Manage the Deployment

o SP 2.3 Measure Improvement Effects

Organizational Process Definition +IPPD (OPD)


The purpose of Organizational Process Definition +IPPD (OPD) is to establish and maintain a usable set of organizational process assets and work environment standards. For IPPD, Organizational Process Definition +IPPD also covers the establishment of organizational rules and guidelines that enable conducting work using integrated teams.

· SG 1 Establish Organizational Process Assets

o SP 1.1 Establish Standard Processes

o SP 1.2 Establish Lifecycle Model Descriptions

o SP 1.3 Establish Tailoring Criteria and Guidelines

o SP 1.4 Establish the Organization's Measurement Repository

o SP 1.5 Establish the Organization's Process Asset Library

o SP 1.6 Establish Work Environment Standards

IPPD Addition:

· SG 2 Enable IPPD Management

o SP 2.1 Establish Empowerment Mechanisms

o SP 2.2 Establish Rules and Guidelines for Integrated Teams

o SP 2.3 Balance Team and Home Organization Responsibilities

Organizational Process Focus (OPF)


The purpose of Organizational Process Focus (OPF) is to plan, implement, and deploy organizational process improvements based on a thorough understanding of the current strengths and weaknesses of the organization's processes and process assets.

· SG 1 Determine Process Improvement Opportunities

o SP 1.1 Establish Organizational Process Needs

o SP 1.2 Appraise the Organization's Processes

o SP 1.3 Identify the Organization's Process Improvements

· SG 2 Plan and Implement Process Improvements

o SP 2.1 Establish Process Action Plans

o SP 2.2 Implement Process Action Plans

· SG 3 Deploy Organizational Process Assets and Incorporate Lessons Learned

o SP 3.1 Deploy Organizational Process Assets

o SP 3.2 Deploy Standard Processes

o SP 3.3 Monitor Implementation

o SP 3.4 Incorporate Process-Related Experiences into the Organizational Process Assets

Organizational Process Performance (OPP)


The purpose of Organizational Process Performance (OPP) is to establish and maintain a quantitative understanding of the performance of the organization's set of standard processes in support of quality and process-performance objectives, and to provide the process-performance data, baselines, and models to quantitatively manage the organization's projects.

· SG 1 Establish Performance Baselines and Models

o SP 1.1 Select Processes

o SP 1.2 Establish Process-Performance Measures

o SP 1.3 Establish Quality and Process-Performance Objectives

o SP 1.4 Establish Process-Performance Baselines

o SP 1.5 Establish Process-Performance Models

Organizational Training (OT)


The purpose of Organizational Training (OT) is to develop the skills and knowledge of people so they can perform their roles effectively and efficiently.

· SG 1 Establish an Organizational Training Capability

o SP 1.1 Establish the Strategic Training Needs

o SP 1.2 Determine Which Training Needs Are the Responsibility of the Organization

o SP 1.3 Establish an Organizational Training Tactical Plan

o SP 1.4 Establish Training Capability

· SG 2 Provide Necessary Training

o SP 2.1 Deliver Training

o SP 2.2 Establish Training Records

o SP 2.3 Assess Training Effectiveness

Product Integration (PI)


The purpose of Product Integration (PI) is to assemble the product from the product components, ensure that the product, as integrated, functions properly, and deliver the product.

· SG 1 Prepare for Product Integration

o SP 1.1 Determine Integration Sequence

o SP 1.2 Establish the Product Integration Environment

o SP 1.3 Establish Product Integration Procedures and Criteria

· SG 2 Ensure Interface Compatibility

o SP 2.1 Review Interface Descriptions for Completeness

o SP 2.2 Manage Interfaces

· SG 3 Assemble Product Components and Deliver the Product

o SP 3.1 Confirm Readiness of Product Components for Integration

o SP 3.2 Assemble Product Components

o SP 3.3 Evaluate Assembled Product Components

o SP 3.4 Package and Deliver the Product or Product Component.

Project Monitoring and Control (PMC)


The purpose of Project Monitoring and Control (PMC) is to provide an understanding of the project's progress so that appropriate corrective actions can be taken when the project's performance deviates significantly from the plan.

· SG 1 Monitor Project Against Plan

o SP 1.1 Monitor Project Planning Parameters

o SP 1.2 Monitor Commitments

o SP 1.3 Monitor Project Risks

o SP 1.4 Monitor Data Management

o SP 1.5 Monitor Stakeholder Involvement

o SP 1.6 Conduct Progress Reviews

o SP 1.7 Conduct Milestone Reviews

· SG 2 Manage Corrective Action to Closure

o SP 2.1 Analyze Issues

o SP 2.2 Take Corrective Action

o SP 2.3 Manage Corrective Action

Project Planning (PP)


The purpose of Project Planning (PP) is to establish and maintain plans that define project activities.

· SG 1 Establish Estimates

o SP 1.1 Estimate the Scope of the Project

o SP 1.2 Establish Estimates of Work Product and Task Attributes

o SP 1.3 Define Project Lifecycle

o SP 1.4 Determine Estimates of Effort and Cost

· SG 2 Develop a Project Plan

o SP 2.1 Establish the Budget and Schedule

o SP 2.2 Identify Project Risks

o SP 2.3 Plan for Data Management

o SP 2.4 Plan for Project Resources

o SP 2.5 Plan for Needed Knowledge and Skills

o SP 2.6 Plan Stakeholder Involvement

o SP 2.7 Establish the Project Plan

· SG 3 Obtain Commitment to the Plan

o SP 3.1 Review Plans that Affect the Project

o SP 3.2 Reconcile Work and Resource Levels

o SP 3.3 Obtain Plan Commitment

Process and Product Quality Assurance (PPQA)


The purpose of Process and Product Quality Assurance (PPQA) is to provide staff and management with objective insight into processes and associated work products.

· SG 1 Objectively Evaluate Processes and Work Products

o SP 1.1 Objectively Evaluate Processes

o SP 1.2 Objectively Evaluate Work Products and Services

· SG 2 Provide Objective Insight

o SP 2.1 Communicate and Ensure Resolution of Noncompliance Issues

o SP 2.2 Establish Records

Quantitative Project Management (QPM)


The purpose of the Quantitative Project Management (QPM) process area is to quantitatively manage the project's defined process to achieve the project's established quality and process-performance objectives.

· SG 1 Quantitatively Manage the Project

o SP 1.1 Establish the Project's Objectives

o SP 1.2 Compose the Defined Processes

o SP 1.3 Select the Subprocesses that Will Be Statistically Managed

o SP 1.4 Manage Project Performance

· SG 2 Statistically Manage Subprocess Performance

o SP 2.1 Select Measures and Analytic Techniques

o SP 2.2 Apply Statistical Methods to Understand Variation

o SP 2.3 Monitor Performance of the Selected Subprocesses

o SP 2.4 Record Statistical Management Data

Requirements Development (RD)


The purpose of Requirements Development (RD) is to produce and analyze customer, product, and product component requirements.

· SG 1 Develop Customer Requirements

o SP 1.1 Elicit Needs

o SP 1.2 Develop the Customer Requirements

· SG 2 Develop Product Requirements

o SP 2.1 Establish Product and Product Component Requirements

o SP 2.2 Allocate Product Component Requirements

o SP 2.3 Identify Interface Requirements

· SG 3 Analyze and Validate Requirements

o SP 3.1 Establish Operational Concepts and Scenarios

o SP 3.2 Establish a Definition of Required Functionality

o SP 3.3 Analyze Requirements

o SP 3.4 Analyze Requirements to Achieve Balance

o SP 3.5 Validate Requirements

Requirements Management (REQM)


The purpose of Requirements Management (REQM) is to manage the requirements of the project's products and product components and to identify inconsistencies between those requirements and the project's plans and work products.

· SG 1 Manage Requirements

o SP 1.1 Obtain an Understanding of Requirements

o SP 1.2 Obtain Commitment to Requirements

o SP 1.3 Manage Requirements Changes

o SP 1.4 Maintain Bidirectional Traceability of Requirements

o SP 1.5 Identify Inconsistencies Between Project Work and Requirements

Risk Management (RSKM)


The purpose of Risk Management (RSKM) is to identify potential problems before they occur so that risk-handling activities can be planned and invoked as needed across the life of the product or project to mitigate adverse impacts on achieving objectives.

· SG 1 Prepare for Risk Management

o SP 1.1 Determine Risk Sources and Categories

o SP 1.2 Define Risk Parameters

o SP 1.3 Establish a Risk Management Strategy

· SG 2 Identify and Analyze Risks

o SP 2.1 Identify Risks

o SP 2.2 Evaluate, Categorize, and Prioritize Risks

· SG 3 Mitigate Risks

o SP 3.1 Develop Risk Mitigation Plans

o SP 3.2 Implement Risk Mitigation Plans

Supplier Agreement Management (SAM)


The purpose of Supplier Agreement Management (SAM) is to manage the acquisition of products from suppliers.

· SG 1 Establish Supplier Agreements

o SP 1.1 Determine Acquisition Type

o SP 1.2 Select Suppliers

o SP 1.3 Establish Supplier Agreements

· SG 2 Satisfy Supplier Agreements

o SP 2.1 Execute the Supplier Agreement

o SP 2.2 Monitor Selected Supplier Processes

o SP 2.3 Evaluate Selected Supplier Work Products

o SP 2.4 Accept the Acquired Product

o SP 2.5 Transition Products

Technical Solution (TS)


The purpose of Technical Solution (TS) is to design, develop, and implement solutions to requirements. Solutions, designs, and implementations encompass products, product components, and product-related lifecycle processes either singly or in combination as appropriate.

· SG 1 Select Product Component Solutions

o SP 1.1 Develop Alternative Solutions and Selection Criteria

o SP 1.2 Select Product Component Solutions

· SG 2 Develop the Design

o SP 2.1 Design the Product or Product Component

o SP 2.2 Establish a Technical Data Package

o SP 2.3 Design Interfaces Using Criteria

o SP 2.4 Perform Make, Buy, or Reuse Analyses

· SG 3 Implement the Product Design

o SP 3.1 Implement the Design

o SP 3.2 Develop Product Support Documentation

Validation (VAL)


The purpose of Validation (VAL) is to demonstrate that a product or product component fulfills its intended use when placed in its intended environment.

· SG 1 Prepare for Validation

o SP 1.1 Select Products for Validation

o SP 1.2 Establish the Validation Environment

o SP 1.3 Establish Validation Procedures and Criteria

· SG 2 Validate Product or Product Components

o SP 2.1 Perform Validation

o SP 2.2 Analyze Validation Results

Verification (VER)


The purpose of Verification (VER) is to ensure that selected work products meet their specified requirements.

· SG 1 Prepare for Verification

o SP 1.1 Select Work Products for Verification

o SP 1.2 Establish the Verification Environment

o SP 1.3 Establish Verification Procedures and Criteria

· SG 2 Perform Peer Reviews

o SP 2.1 Prepare for Peer Reviews

o SP 2.2 Conduct Peer Reviews

o SP 2.3 Analyze Peer Review Data

· SG 3 Verify Selected Work Products

o SP 3.1 Perform Verification

o SP 3.2 Analyze Verification Results

1 comment:

  1. Excellent one, Arre sir aap toh Testing field ke Kohinoor Ho